Tag: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
As reported in various media outlets, on December 1 the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) voted 13-1 to recommend that health care providers, expressly including EMS personnel, be prioritized to receive the COVID-19 vaccines during Phase 1a of the vaccine distribution plan. The complicating factor is that State and local governments have the final say in whether these recommendations are incorporated into their own distribution plans. Thus, we encourage all AAA members to engage actively with their State and local governments to urge the adoption of the CDC recommendation. The AAA has developed a toolkit for members to use in reaching out to their state and local government officials.
The AAA has been engaging with ACIP and other federal policy makers to urge them to prioritize EMS in the vaccine distribution plan. On November 19, the AAA submitted a comment letter to the ACIP advocating that the advisory committee specifically include EMS personnel in their recommendation of groups in the first phase of receiving the vaccination. Even though States and local governments will create their own list, having EMS listed in Phase 1a CDC recommendations is a critically important step toward influencing the State and local process.
During its second emergency meeting in less than a month, ACIP met to develop recommendations on the prioritization of vaccines, given that it will be impossible to provide access to everyone in the United States immediately after the vaccines are approved. In both virtual meetings, Committee members noted the importance of EMS personnel having access to the vaccine in the very top tier for prioritization. Other health care personnel on this list are defined as hospitals, long-term care facilities, outpatient clinics, home health care, pharmacies, and public health. The Phase 1a tier also includes residents of nursing homes, assisted living facilities, and other residential care settings, given that approximately 40 percent of all COVID-19 deaths have occurred in these settings. The final recommendation approved states:
When a COVID-19 vaccine is authorized by FDA and recommended by ACIP, vaccination in the initial phase of the COVID-19 vaccination program (Phase 1a) should be offered to both 1) health care personnel§ and 2) residents of long-term care facilities.
Health care personnel are defined as paid and unpaid persons serving in health care settings who have the potential for direct or indirect exposure to patients or infectious materials.
Long-term care facility residents are defined as adults who reside in facilities that provide a variety of services, including medical and personal care, to persons who are unable to live independently.
The CDC plans to publish this recommendation in the Morbidity Mortality Weekly Report as well.
The only controversial issue related to whether long-term care facility residents should receive the vaccine given the limited information available about its effectiveness and safety in these populations.
Because President Trump has indicated that State and local governments do not have to follow the CDC recommendations, it is critically important that AAA members work closely with their State and local governments to ensure that the CDC recommendations with regard to EMS are adopted by them as well. The AAA has posted a tool kit on our website to help our members provide the necessary information to their State and local governments as they are making these decision.
ACIP will continue to evaluate the distribution prioritization for Phase 1b, which will likely be non-health care essential workers, and Phase 1c, which will include adults with high-risk medical conditions and adults 65 years or older.
The AAA has sent a letter to CMS on how the agency can most help ground ambulance service providers and suppliers be better prepared to respond to potential cases of COVID-19. The AAA has requested priority access to personal protection equipment for EMS personnel and COVID-19 test kits and results, as well as easing Medicare and Medicaid policies on alternative destinations and treatment in place. The letter was also sent to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR). Read the letter HERE.
The New England Journal of Medicine has rapidly published a peer-reviewed paper on the Snohomish County WA ‘Patient 1’. This was the first reported case of COVID 19 in the US. This seminal document, which given the magnitude of the case and its initial findings is released in full here
The work by Michelle L. Holshue, M.P.H., Chas DeBolt, M.P.H., Scott Lindquist, M.D., Kathy H. Lofy, et al for the Washington State 2019-nCoV Case Investigation Team was turned round in just over 5 weeks and below is an ‘Executive summary’ ( as extracted from the paper) but the full paper and range of results should be read in full.
On January 19, 2020, a 35-year-old man presented to an urgent care clinic in Snohomish County, Washington, with a 4-day history of cough and subjective fever. On checking into the clinic, the patient put on a mask in the waiting room. After waiting approximately 20 minutes, he was taken into an examination room and underwent evaluation by a provider. He disclosed that he had returned to Washington State on January 15 after traveling to visit family in Wuhan, China. The patient stated that he had seen a health alert from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) about the novel coronavirus outbreak in China and, because of his symptoms and recent travel, decided to see a health care provider.
On admission, the patient reported persistent dry cough and a 2-day history of nausea and vomiting; he reported that he had no shortness of breath or chest pain. Vital signs were within normal ranges. On physical examination, the patient was found to have dry mucous membranes. The remainder of the examination was generally unremarkable. After admission, the patient received supportive care, including 2 liters of normal saline and ondansetron for nausea.
Both upper respiratory specimens obtained on illness day 7 remained positive for 2019-nCoV, including persistent high levels in a nasopharyngeal swab specimen (Ct values, 23 to 24).
Stool obtained on illness day 7 was also positive for 2019-nCoV (Ct values, 36 to 38).
Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal specimens obtained on illness days 11 and 12 showed a trend toward decreasing levels of virus
Day 8: Condition Improves
On hospital day 8 (illness day 12), the patient’s clinical condition improved. Supplemental oxygen was discontinued, and his oxygen saturation values improved to 94 to 96% while he was breathing ambient air. The previous bilateral lower-lobe rales were no longer present. His appetite improved, and he was asymptomatic aside from intermittent dry cough and rhinorrhea. As of January 30, 2020, the patient remains hospitalized. He is afebrile, and all symptoms have resolved with the exception of his cough, which is decreasing in severity.
This case report highlights the importance of clinicians eliciting a recent history of travel or exposure to sick contacts in any patient presenting for medical care with acute illness symptoms, in order to ensure appropriate identification and prompt isolation of patients who may be at risk for 2019-nCoV infection and to help reduce further transmission. Finally, this report highlights the need to determine the full spectrum and natural history of clinical disease, pathogenesis, and duration of viral shedding associated with 2019-nCoV infection to inform clinical management and public health decision making.
There is little doubt that this paper is about to become a globally sited document as we continue to deal with COVID 19. As far as EMS and our first response to it goes, the paper reinforces the key actions currently being taken
President Donald Trump today signed H.R. H.R. 6074 into law, approving $8.3 billion in supplemental appropriations to fund programs in response to the COVID-19 illness. The bill would bolster vaccine development, research, equipment stockpiles, and state and local health budgets as government officials and health workers fight to contain the outbreak, which has claimed 11 lives in the U.S. and sickened more than 160 people across more than a dozen states.
The AAA advocated to negotiators of the bill that first responders needed to be included in the funding package and that all communities be eligible for the funding. Due in part to our outreach, the emergency funding provides a transfer of no less than $10 million to the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences for worker-based training aimed at preventing exposure of the virus to emergency first responders, and others at risk of exposure (i.e., hospital employees).
The supplemental also appropriates $1 billion for state and local preparedness, which will allow state and local governments to carry out preparedness and response activities, with each State receiving a minimum of $4 million. Of the $1 billion, $300 million is allocated for global disease detection and emergency response, and FY 2019 Public Health Emergency Preparedness grantees.
This guidance is written to offer American Ambulance Association members the situational background and a list of resources and websites with which to draw guidance and further updates on the latest situation with COVID-19, colloquially referred to as “Coronavirus.” Key information for this update has been drawn from the NHTSA EMS Focus series webinar What EMS, 911 and Other Public Safety Personnel Need to Know About COVID-19, which took place on February 24, 2020. The on-demand recording is available below.
The COVID-19 Coronavirus Disease was first reported in Wuhan China in December 2019. CDC identifies that it was caused by the virus SARS – CoV-2. Early on, many patients were reported to have a link to a large seafood and live animal market. Later, patients did not have exposure to animal markets which indicates person-to-person transmission. Travel-related exportation of cases into the US was first reported January 21, 2020. For reference the first North American EMS experience of COVID-19 patient transport, including key lessons learned, can be found in the EMS 1 article Transporting Patient 1.
Spread and Identification
Global investigations are now ongoing to better understand the spread. Based on what is known about other coronaviruses, it is presumed to spread primarily through person-to-person contact and may occur when respiratory droplets are produced when an infected person costs or sneezes. Spread could also occur when touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and when touching the mouth, nose, or eyes. Again, research is still ongoing, and advice and guidance will inevitably follow.
For the cases that have been identified so far, those patients with COVID19 have reportedly had mild to severe respiratory illness with symptoms including fever and shortness of breath. Symptoms have typically appeared 2 to 14 days after exposure. Both the WHO and CDC advise that patients that have been to China and develop the symptoms should call their doctors.
COVID-19 Prevention and Treatment
To date, 30 international locations, in addition to the US, have reported confirmed cases of COVID-19 infection. Inside the US, two instances of person-to-person spread of the virus have been detected. In both cases, these occurred after close and prolonged contact with a traveler who had recently returned from Wuhan, China.
The CDC activated its Emergency Operations Center (EOC) on January 21 and is coordinating closely with state and local partners to assist with identifying cases early; conducting case investigations; and learning about the virology, transmission, and clinical spectrum for this disease. The CDC is continuing to develop and refine guidance for multiple audiences, including the first responder and public safety communities.
As at the date of publication there is still no specific antiviral treatment licensed for COVID-19, although the WHO and its affiliates are working to develop this.
The following are recommended preventative measures for COVID-19 and many other respiratory illnesses:
- Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds.
- Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer with at least 60% if soap and water are not readily available.
- Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands.
- Avoid contact with people who are sick.
- Stay home when you are sick.
- Cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue, then throw it away.
- Clean and disinfect frequently touched objects and surfaces.
Interim Guidance for EMS and 911
The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has issued its Interim Guidance for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Systems and 911 Public Safety Answering Points (PSAPs) for COVID-19 in the United States.
The guidance identifies EMS as vital in responding to and providing emergency treatment for the ill. The nature of our mobile healthcare service delivery presents unique challenges in the working environment. It also identifies that coordination between PSAPs and EMS is critical.
Key points are summarized below:
Recommendations for 911 PSAP Locations
The link between PSAPs and EMS is essential. With the advent of COVID19 there is a need to modify caller queries to question callers and determine the possibility that the call concerns a person who may have signs or symptoms and risk factors for COVID19.
The International Academy of Emergency Dispatch (IAED) recommends that agencies using its Medical Priority Dispatch System (MPDS) should use its Emerging Infectious Disease Surveillance (EIDS) Tool within the Sick Person and Breathing Problem protocols. For those that are not MPDS users, IAED is offering its EIDS surveillance Tool for Coronavirus, SRI, MERS and Ebola-free of charge under a limited use agreement.
Recommended Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
The CDC recommends that while involved in the direct care of patients the following PPE should be worn:
- Single pair of disposable examination gloves
- Disposable isolation gown
- Respiratory protection (N95 or higher)
- Eye Protection (goggles or disposable face shield)
EMS Transport of a Patient Under Investigation (PUI) or Patient with Confirmed COVID19
- Notify receiving healthcare facility so appropriate precautions can be put in place
- Discourage family and contacts from riding in transport vehicle
- Isolate the vehicle driver from the patient compartment by closing the windows between compartments and ensuring that the vehicle ventilation system is set to the non-recirculated mode
- Document patient care
Cleaning EMS Transport Vehicles After Transporting PUI or Patient
- Don PPE for cleaning with disposable gown and gloves, facemask, and goggles or face shield if splashes are anticipated
- Routine cleaning and infection procedures should follow organizational standard operating procedures
- Use protect use products with EPA-approved emergent viral pathogens claims
Once transport is complete, organizations should notify state or local public health authorities for follow up. Additionally agencies should (if not done already) develop policies for assessing exposure risk and management of EMS personnel, report any potential exposure to the chain of command, and watch for fever or respiratory symptoms amongst staff.
While not specific to COVID-19, agencies should:
- Assess current practices and policies for infection control
- Job- or task-specific education and training
- PPE training and supply
- Decontamination processes and supplies
Local EMS Considerations
- PPE supplies
- 911 and EMD call taking activities
- Appropriate approach to potential patients
- Educational resources for EMS personnel
- Interaction with local public health/healthcare systems/emergency management
- Interaction with local fire and law enforcement
- Considerations for local jails
- World Health Organization (WHO)—For a wider perspective, the WHO provides both a daily live online briefing and written situation report.
- FirstWatch—FirstWatch Solutions maintains a Health Intelligence site that is available for all to use. The site is not limited to COVID19 but is a useful reference to emerging health trends. Additionally, FirstWatch, in partnership with the Paramedic Chiefs of Canada, is presenting regular webinars on COVID-19 which can be located via the Health Intelligence web page.
- Updated information about COVID19
- Infection prevention and control recommendations
- Additional information for healthcare personnel
- CDC’s case definition for a person under investigation (PUI) for COVID19
- CDC Quarantine Station Contact List
- Guideline for Isolation Precautions: Preventing Transmission of Infectious Agents in Healthcare Settings (2007)
- Exposure risk and management
- Infectious Disease Playbook
The COVID19 situation constantly evolving. Agencies should defer to their local EMS authorities, Public Health departments, and the CDC for definitive guidance. Going forward, the AAA will continue to both monitor the disease and alert issues to the membership.